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Climate Change

Climate change is the biggest issue of our time

IPCC 6th Assessment Report

"It is unequivocal that human influence has warmed the atmosphere, ocean and land since pre-industrial times... The likely range of total human-caused global surface temperature increase from 1850–1900 to 2010–2019 is 0.8°C to 1.3°C... Human-induced greenhouse gas forcing is the main driver of the observed changes in hot and cold extremes"

Ever since the industrial revolution in the 1800s, we have been increasingly pumping gases into the atmosphere, causing the earth to heat up faster than any other time in the planet’s history. Anything we burn gives off these gases, carbon dioxide in the main, whether for electricity generation, space heating, vehicle fuels, industrial processes, deforestation, composting or animal farming.

Earth has been much hotter in the past, but the current rate of change is unprecedented. Moreover, global warming is happening in people’s lifetimes rather than geological timescales. The consequence is melting polar ice caps, rising sea levels, and more frequent and extreme weather events.

The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (The IPCC) is the United Nations body for assessing the science related to climate change. The IPCC has said we should restrict any global temperature rises to no more than 1.5°C overall to avoid the worst effects. Reaching this is a truly global challenge.

Greenhouse Gases (GHGs)
Greenhouse gases are compound gases that trap heat in the atmosphere making the Earth's surface warmer.
Carbon dioxide (CO2)
Carbon dioxide is a chemical compound made up of one carbon atom and two oxygen atoms. It is a gas at room temperature and has a freezing point of -78.5°C.
Carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2e)
CO2e is the common unit used to compare the global warming potential (GWP) of all GHGs relative to the GWP of CO2. For example, methane (CH4) has 25 times the global warming potential of carbon dioxide (CO2).
Climate Change Adaptation
Climate change adaptation means altering the status quo to protect people, economies, and the environment from the impacts of climate change.
Climate Change Mitigation
Climate change mitigation means avoiding and reducing emissions of heat-trapping greenhouse gases into the atmosphere to prevent the planet from warming to more extreme temperatures.
Paris Agreement
The Paris Agreement is a legally binding international treaty to limit global warming to well below 2°C, preferably to 1.5°C, compared to pre-industrial levels. It was adopted at COP 21 in Paris in December 2015.
Paris Agreement
Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs)
Under the Paris Agreement, Australia must submit emissions reduction commitments known as Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs). The Australian Government's NDC is 43% by 2030 and net-zero by 2050.
Net-zero GHG emissions basically means stopping harm to the earth.
In practice, you reduce your GHG emissions and also offset the emissions you can't stop emitting by implementing activities to absorb GHG emissions equal to those you cannot get rid of (e.g. purchasing offset credits). 
Science Based Targets initiative (SBTi)
The SBTi drives ambitious climate action in the private sector by enabling organisations to set science-based emissions reduction targets (how much and how quickly) to prevent the worst effects of climate change.
Scope 1
Scope 1 emissions are direct emissions from owned or controlled sources.
GHG Protocol
Scope 2
Scope 2 emissions are indirect emissions from the generation of purchased energy.
GHG Protocol
Scope 3
Scope 3 emissions are all indirect emissions (not included in scope 2) that occur in the value chain of the reporting company, including both upstream and downstream emissions.
GHG Protocol

Figure 1.1 Overview of GHG Protocol scopes and emissions across the value chain, Corporate Value Chain (Scope 3) Accounting and Reporting Standard, Greenhouse Gas Protocol, World Resources Institute {https://ghgprotocol.org/sites/default/files/standards/Corporate-Value-Chain-Accounting-Reporing-Standard_041613_2.pdf}