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The MECLA Dictionary of Carbon

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The MECLA Dictionary of Carbon provides common language definitions for popular carbon-related terms used in the built environment and related industries.

The definitions were developed by MECLA Working Group 4 and have been reviewed by all interested MECLA working group members.

References are included for each definition. The definition used may be directly quoted or may be derived from the reference. Where MECLA has created a unique definition, it is noted.

The definitions are freely available for use by any organisation.

A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z

Applicability and Limitations | This dictionary is introductory in nature and may not be suitable for your intended purpose. It does not constitute technical, legal or other advice and should not be relied upon as such. You should always obtain your own technical, legal or other advice from a qualified professional based on your specific circumstances before taking any action relating to matters covered by this document. MECLA does not make any representations in relation to the accuracy, currency or completeness of the information contained in this document (including information obtained from external sources). To the maximum extent permitted by law, MECLA (including our directors, officers, employees, agents and partner organisations) excludes any liability in relation to the use of this document (whether in whole or in part). Your reliance on this document is at your own risk.

Figure 1

BS EN 15978:2011 Sustainability of construction works. Assessment of environmental performance of buildings. Calculation method – European Standards (en-standard.eu) (amended to include whole-life cycle carbon)

Absolute Zero Carbon
The achievement of zero GHG Emissions without the use of any Carbon Offsets or other compensation mechanisms expressed on a whole-of-life basis or another clearly defined boundary.
(The Institution of Structural Engineers, 2021)
Adaptive Reuse
Reusing an existing building for a new purpose as an alternative to new construction.
(Guida, 2020)
Attributable emissions
GHG Emissions from services, materials and energy flows that become the product, make the product and carry the product or service through its life cycle.
(Climate Active, Technical guidance Manual, 2021)
Australian Carbon Credit Unit (ACCU)
An Australian carbon credit unit as defined under the Carbon Credits (Carbon Farming Initiative) Act 2011 (Cth) which is equal to one metric tonne of CO2-e. Each ACCU issued represents one tonne of carbon dioxide equivalent (tCO2-e) stored or avoided by a project.
(Clean Energy Regulator, Australian Government, 2020)
Biodiesel
A liquid fuel derived from vegetable oils or animal fats. Biodiesel has physical properties similar to those of petroleum diesel, but it is a cleaner-burning renewable alternative. Biodiesel can be blended and used in many different concentrations, from B5, which is 95% petroleum diesel and 5% biodiesel, all the way up to B100, which is pure biodiesel.
(Biki, 2021)
Biodiesel e-learning module
Bioethanol
An alcohol used as a blending agent with gasoline to increase octane and cut down emissions. The lifecycle emissions reduction potential of bioethanol is reported to be lower than biodiesel. Bioethanol is generally considered suitable for petrol spark ignition engines used for passenger cars or light-duty applications.
(Bullis, 2006)
Biofuel
An alternative fuel that is developed from biological, natural, and renewable sources. Biofuels are an attractive option due to their high energy density and convenient handling and storage properties. Biofuels can be used on their own (with some precautions or restrictions) or blended with petroleum fuels.
(Demirbas & Demirbas, 2011)
Biogenic Carbon
Carbon removals associated with Carbon Sequestration into biomass, including natural building materials (e.g. timber) as well as any emissions associated with this Carbon Sequestration.
(The Alliance for Sustainable Building Products, 2021)
Burden shifting
Occurs when improvements in one part of the life cycle result in counteracting or negative impacts elsewhere, for example, across different product or service life cycle stages or between countries.
(Jackson & Brander, 2019)
Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS)
Capture, transport and storage of Greenhouse Gases from industrial processes such as fossil fuel power stations, energy-intensive industries, and gas fields by injecting the captured Greenhouse Gases back into the ground for permanent storage.
(Climate Council, 2021)
Carbon Capture and Utilisation (CCU)
The conversion of Greenhouse Gases captured from emissions sources or the atmosphere into valuable lower or zero-emission products.
(CSIRO, 2021)
Carbon Dioxide Equivalents (CO2-e)
A measure that quantifies the global warming effect of different greenhouse gases in terms of the amount of carbon dioxide that would deliver the same global warming effect.
(Climate Change Authority, 2014)
Carbon Footprint
The total set of GHG Emissions and their impacts caused by an organisation, event or product in a given time frame.
(Carbon Trust, 2009)
Carbon Handprint
For an organisation, it is the reduction of the Carbon Footprint of the organisation's customers or customers, achieved by the provision of the organisation’s products or services. It contrasts with the organisation’s own Carbon Footprint in providing that product or service.
(VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland Ltd, 2016)
Carbon Intensity
The amount of CO2-e emitted as a unit of production or output e.g. per $ revenue, full-time equivalent or m2 floor area. Refer also to Greenhouse Gas Intensity
(Baumert, Herzog, & Pershing, 2005)
Carbon Inventory
A measure of the GHG Emissions that are attributable to an activity. A carbon inventory can relate to the emissions of an individual, household, organisation, product, service, event, building or precinct. This can also be known as a carbon footprint or carbon account.
(Climate Active, Technical guidance Manual, 2021)
Carbon Leakage
A policy gap that allows one region to reduce the GHG Emissions which it accounts for by outsourcing manufacturing emissions to another region with less stringent GHG Emissions monitoring and reduction policies.
(Carbon Leadership forum, 2020)
Carbon Mineralisation
The process by which CO2 becomes a solid mineral, such as a carbonate. It is a chemical reaction that happens when certain rocks are exposed to CO2.
(USGS, 2019)
Carbon Negative
A city, development, building, or product that goes beyond being Carbon Neutral to intentionally remove CO2-e from the atmosphere and turns it into useful forms. Also referred to as Carbon Positive.
(Bernoville, 2021)
Carbon Neutral
Having a balance between emitting Greenhouse Gases and absorbing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere in carbon sinks.
(Europa, 2021)
Carbon Neutral Certified
Awarded to organisations, products, services, events, buildings, or precincts that have reached a state of being Carbon Neutral in accordance with a recognised standard. An example of Carbon Neutral Certification is the Australian Government’s Climate Active Carbon Neutral Certification programme.
(Climate Neutral, 2021)
Carbon Offsets
An action intended to compensate for the emission of CO2-e into the atmosphere as a result of industrial or other human activity, especially when quantified and traded as part of a commercial scheme.
(Lexico, 2022)
Carbon Reduction Plan / Framework
A government or organisation’s plan or framework for achieving the GHG Emissions reductions it has committed to, including actions and milestones.
(UK Government, 2013)
Carbon Positive
See Carbon Negative.
Carbon Sequestration
The process of removal and storage of CO2 from the atmosphere in carbon sinks (such as forests, woody plants, algae, kelp, mangroves or soils) or through carbon mineralisation.
(Department for Environment and Water, 2022)
Circular Economy
Circular Economy is based on three principles: design out waste and pollution, keep products and materials in use through refurbishment, reuse and design for adaptation or deconstruction, and regenerate natural systems. The concept of retaining materials at their highest value normally means that embodied carbon invested is also retained and low carbon outcomes are more likely. However, this is not always the case, and it is important to design for outcomes that are both low carbon and circular.
(Ellen Macarthur, 2022) (thinkstep-anz, 2021)
Climate Positive
Climate positive projects provide net positive climate outcomes. They also provide environmental, social, cultural, and economic co-benefits. Over a cradle-to-cradle life cycle assessment, they sequester more greenhouse gases than they emit.
(The Australian Institute of Landscape Architects (AILA), 2022)
Climate Positive Development
A development that reduces the emissions it creates and offsets the remainder by removing emissions from adjacent communities. Also referred to as a Climate Positive outcome. Programme developed by the C40 Cities Climate Leadership Group, in partnership with the Clinton Climate Initiative (CCI), and the U.S. Green Building Council.
(CLIMATE+)
Cradle to Cradle
In respect of LCA, the boundary for a full LCA, when a product is completely reused and/or recycled at the end of life. In respect of design, a circular design concept that requires a product to be made in a way that allows for
(Hauschild, Rosenbaum, & Olsen, 2017)
Cradle to Gate
The scope of measurement of impacts in an LCA or Carbon Footprint from raw material acquisition to a finished product at the exit gate of the manufacturing facility.
(C. Cao, 2017)
Cradle to Grave
\The scope of measurement of impacts in an LCA or Carbon Footprint across the entire lifespan of the product, from raw material acquisition through to final disposal, reuse or recycling.
(C. Cao, 2017)
Demolition Carbon
The GHG Emissions necessary to demolish and dispose of a building at the end of its life. (Modules C1-C4 in Figure 1.)
(C. Cao, 2017) (UCL Engineering)
FIGURE 1
Embodied Carbon
GHG Emissions associated with materials and construction processes throughout the whole life cycle of a building or infrastructure being the sum of upfront embodied carbon, in-use embodied carbon, and end-of-life embodied carbon, measured by CO2-e.
(World Green Building Council, 2019)
Embodied In-Use Carbon
The emissions caused by embodied emissions of a building or infrastructure, through in-use / operational life cycle phase (Modules B1-B5 in Figure 1.) This does not include operational energy (module B6).
(World Green Building Council, 2019)
FIGURE 1
Embodied Emissions
See Embodied Carbon
Embodied Energy
The total energy necessary for an entire product life cycle including raw material extraction, transport, manufacture, assembly, installation, maintenance, repair, disassembly, replacement, deconstruction and/or decomposition. This includes renewable and non-renewable energy. Embodied energy does not correlate to embodied carbon.
(World Green Building Council, 2019)
Embodied Upfront Carbon
The emissions caused in the materials production and construction phases (Modules A1-5 in Figure 1) of the lifecycle before the building or infrastructure begins to be used. In contrast to other categories of emissions listed in the Glossary, these emissions have already been released into the atmosphere before the building is occupied or the infrastructure begins operation.
(World Green Building Council, 2019)
FIGURE 1
Emission Factors
Emission factors are used to convert a unit of activity into its GHG Emissions equivalent. (e.g.. a factor that specifies the kilograms of GHG Emissions per unit of activity).
(Climate Active, Technical guidance Manual, 2021)
Emissions and Energy Reporting System (EERS)
The system for all reporting under the National Greenhouse and Energy Reporting Act 2007.
(Clean Energy Regulator, Australian Government, 2020)
Emissions Boundary
All the emission sources included and excluded in a carbon account, either at a product, site, organisation, building, precinct, infrastructure or city scale.
(ISO 14040, 2006)
End of Life Carbon
The GHG Emissions associated with the End of Life of a building, infrastructure, product or material. See Demolition Carbon
(World Green Building Council, 2019)
End of life processes
Deconstruction or demolition, transport from site, waste processing and disposal phases of a building, infrastructure product or material's lifecycle (Modules C1-C4 in Figure 1) which occur after it has ceased to be used.
(Designing Buildings, 2022)
FIGURE 1
Environment Product Declaration (EPD)
An independently verified and registered document that communicates transparent and comparable information about the life-cycle environmental impact of products and services in a credible way. An EPD is compliant with the standard ISO 14025 and is known as a Type III environmental declaration. Many compliant EPD schemes exist globally. See Carbon Footprint
(EPD International, 2022)
GHG Emissions
All emissions of Greenhouse Gases.
(World Green Building Council, 2019)
‘Green’ materials
'An environmental claim that is often used informally. The use of ‘green’ claims for materials (aluminium, concrete, steel, etc) is not recommended. While ‘green’ materials terms are often used informally, particular care is required in using such terms in a business context. To ensure compliance with Australian Consumer Law, environmental claims must be accurate, clear and able to be substantiated.
(MECLA) (Australian Competition and Consumer Commission, 2022)
Greenhouse Gases (GHG)
Greenhouse gases are those gaseous constituents of the atmosphere, from both natural and anthropogenic sources, which contribute to the greenhouse effect, as detailed in the IPCC Glossary. GHG emissions are often referred to as ‘carbon emissions’ in general usage.
(IPCC, 2018)
Greenhouse Gas Intensity
For a product, the total GHG Emissions released in energy consumption for production and overhead, GHG Emissions released by transport used for business travel and additional GHG Emissions from the production process divided by the value of the product (i.e. the total factory gate price). Refer also to Carbon Intensity.
(OECD, 2022)
Initial Embodied Energy
The energy, whether derived from fossil fuel or renewable sources, required to initially produce the building or infrastructure including the energy used for the abstraction, processing, manufacture, transport and assembly of the materials of the building or infrastructure. It is different to the Embodied Energy of the building or infrastructure.
(McAlinden, 2015)
Life Cycle Assessment (LCA)
An analysis of the environmental and/or social impacts of a product, process or a service for its entire life cycle. It looks at the raw material extraction, production, manufacture, distribution, use and disposal of a product. Also known as Life Cycle Analysis.
(ISO 14044, 2006)
Life Cycle Engineering
Sustainability-oriented engineering methodology that takes into account the comprehensive technical, environmental, and economic impacts of decisions within the product life cycle.
(Hauschild M. , 2018)
Life Cycle Inventory
An inventory of input and output flows for a product system over its entire life cycle.
(ISO 14044, 2006)
Life Cycle Stages
Defined stages throughout the life cycle of a building or infrastructure including the product stage, construction process stage, use stage, end of life stage and benefits and loads beyond the building or infrastructure life cycle, as outlined in EN 15978 and illustrated in Figure 1.
(World Green Building Council, 2019) (The Alliance for Sustainable Building Products, 2021)
FIGURE 1
Low Carbon Materials
Materials that have been produced with a low Embodied Carbon content across life cycle modules A1-A3 (refer to Figure 1) relative to their equivalents in the market. Also known as Low Emission Building Materials.
(NSW Government, 2021)
FIGURE 1
Low Emission Building Materials
See Low Carbon Materials.
Net Zero Carbon
A calculated result of zero GHG Emissions, via netting of inward and outward flows of GHG Emissions and carbon offsets or other compensation mechanisms. expressed on a whole-of-life basis or otherwise by reference to clearly expressed boundaries. A net zero definition can be applied across any defined boundary, including a whole life cycle of an asset or product, upfront embodied carbon, operational emissions, etc.
(The Alliance for Sustainable Building Products, 2021)
Operational Carbon
The GHG Emissions associated with energy used to operate the building or infrastructure (Module B6 in Figure 1).
(World Green Building Council, 2019)
FIGURE 1
Product Category Rule
The requirements for developing Type III EPDs for a group of products that fulfil an equivalent function.
(ISO 14025, 2006) (EPD Australasia, 2018)
Product Life Cycle
The consecutive and interlinked stages of a product system, from raw material acquisition or generation from natural resources to final disposal. Comprehensive life cycle analysis considers both upstream and downstream processes. Upstream processes include the extraction and production of raw materials and manufacturing. Downstream processes include product disposal (such as recycling or sending waste to landfill).
(ISO 14040, 2006)
Recurring Embodied Carbon
CO2-e needed to refurbish and maintain the building over its lifetime (ie. Modules B1-B5 in Figure 1), as distinct from Operational Carbon (Module B6).
(eTool Global, 2022)
FIGURE 1
Renewable Diesel
A biofuel with similar chemical composition to petroleum diesel, which allows the fuel to be used as a ‘drop-in’ replacement for fossil diesel without the need for blending.
(U.S. Energy Information Administration, 2020)
Scope 1 Emissions
GHG Emissions released to the atmosphere as a direct result of an activity, or series of activities at a facility level. Scope 1 emissions are sometimes referred to as direct emissions. Examples are:
● emissions produced from manufacturing processes, such as from the manufacture of cement;
● emissions from the burning of diesel fuel in trucks;
● fugitive emissions, such as methane emissions from coal mines; or
● production of electricity by burning coal.
(Clean Energy Regulator, Australian Government, 2021)
Scope 2 Emissions
GHG Emissions released to the atmosphere from the indirect consumption of an energy commodity. For example, 'indirect emissions' come from the use of electricity produced by the burning of coal in another facility. Scope 2 Emissions from one facility are part of the Scope 1 Emissions from another facility.
(Clean Energy Regulator, Australian Government, 2021)
Scope 3 Emissions
Indirect GHG Emissions other than Scope 2 Emissions that are generated in the wider economy. They occur as a consequence of the activities of a facility, but from sources not owned or controlled by that facility's business. Some examples are extraction and production of purchased materials, transportation of purchased fuels, use of sold products and services, and flying on a commercial airline by a person from another business. Also referred to as supply chain emissions.
(Clean Energy Regulator, Australian Government, 2021)
Stewardship Initiative
Product stewardship schemes support the environmentally sound management of products and materials over their life. This includes at the end of their useful life. These arrangements may be voluntary, mandatory, or shared across industry. Several stewardship initiatives exist which are related to products used in the built environment.
(Department of Agriculture Water and the Environment, 2021)
Stewardship Initiatives
Several stewardship initiatives exist which are related to products used in the built environment. Relevant initiatives include:
Standards
Standards related to carbon in the built environment
ISO 14021:2016 Environmental labels and declarations — Self-declared environmental claims (Type II environmental labelling)
ISO 14021
ISO 14024:2018 Environmental labels and declarations — Type I environmental labelling — Principles and procedures
ISO 14024
ISO 14025:2006 Environmental labels and declarations — Type III environmental declarations — Principles and procedures
ISO 14025
ISO 14040:2006 Environmental management — Life cycle assessment — Principles and framework
ISO 14040
ISO 14044:2006 Environmental management — Life cycle assessment — Requirements and guidelines
ISO 14044
ISO 14067:2018 Greenhouse gases — Carbon footprint of products — Requirements and guidelines for quantification
ISO 14067
Sustainability of construction works - Environmental product declarations - Core rules for the product category of construction products
EN 15804
BS EN 15978:2011 Sustainability of construction works. Assessment of environmental performance of buildings. Calculation method
EN 15978
Publicly Available Specification (PAS) 2050 -. Specification for the assessment of the life cycle greenhouse gas emissions of goods and services
PAS 2050
PAS 2060:2014 Specification for the demonstration of carbon neutrality
PAS 2060
PAS 2080:2016 Carbon management in infrastructure
PAS 2080
Upfront Embodied Carbon
See Embodied Upfront Carbon
Whole-Life Carbon
The total of all GHG Emissions and removals, both operational and embodied, over the lifecycle of an asset, including its disposal (Modules A–C in Figure 1). Potential benefits or loads from future energy recovery, reuse and recycling are reported separately (Module D)
(The Alliance of Sustainable Building Products, 2021)
FIGURE 1

References

Australian Competition and Consumer Commission. (2022, February 9). Retrieved from https://www.accc.gov.au/system/files/Green%20marketing%20and%20the%20ACL.pdf

Baumert, K. A., Herzog, T., & Pershing, J. (2005). Navigating the Numbers Greenhouse Gas Data and International Climate Policy. World Resources Institute (WRI).

Bernoville, T. (2021, June 8). Retrieved from Plan A Academy: https://plana.earth/academy/what-is-difference-between-carbon-neutral-net-zero-climate-positive/

Biki, Z. (2021, December 17). Retrieved from United States Department of Agriculture: https://apps.fas.usda.gov/newgainapi/api/Report/DownloadReportByFileName?fileName=Biofuels%20Annual_Canberra_Australia_10-25-2021.pdf

Bullis, K. (2006, September 1). Retrieved from MIT Technology Review: https://www.technologyreview.com/2006/09/01/228127/ethanol-vs-biodiesel/

C. Cao. (2017). Advanced High Strength Natural Fibre Composites in Construction.

Carbon Leadership forum. (2020, December 17). Retrieved from Carbon Leadership forum: https://carbonleadershipforum.org/embodied-carbon-101/

Carbon Trust. (2009). Retrieved from https://web.archive.org/web/20090511102744/http://www.carbontrust.co.uk/solutions/CarbonFootprinting/what_is_a_carbon_footprint.htm

Clean Energy Regulator. (2020, September 17). Retrieved from Australian Government: http://www.cleanenergyregulator.gov.au/OSR/ANREU/types-of-emissions-units/australian-carbon-credit-units

Clean Energy Regulator. (2021, May 24). Retrieved from Australian Government: http://www.cleanenergyregulator.gov.au/NGER/About-the-National-Greenhouse-and-Energy-Reporting-scheme/Greenhouse-gases-and-energy

Climate Active. (2019). Climate Active Certification. Retrieved from Climate Active: https://www.climateactive.org.au/be-climate-active/certification

Climate Active. (2021). Technical guidance Manual.

Climate Change Authority. (2014, July). Retrieved from Climate Change Authority: https://www.climatechangeauthority.gov.au/sites/default/files/2020-06/UIUHAERT/glossary.pdf

Climate Council. (2021, July 20). Retrieved from Climate Council: https://www.climatecouncil.org.au/resources/what-is-carbon-capture-and-storage/?atb=DSA01c&gclid=CjwKCAjwgISIBhBfEiwALE19SeMEyqm8P0G2a0a8M727ola80l9-3N3TBrKT6Q_BYHFN_eZplzU20BoCHOYQAvD_BwE

Climate Neutral. (2021). Climate Neutral. Retrieved from Climate Neutral: https://www.climateneutral.org/standards

CLIMATE+. (n.d.). CLIMATE+ Development Program. C40.

CSIRO. (2021). CO2 Utilisation Roadmap. Retrieved from https://www.csiro.au/-/media/Services/Futures/21-00285_SER-FUT_REPORT_CO2UtilisationRoadmap_ExeSumm_WEB_210810.pdf

Demirbas, A., & Demirbas, M. (2011). Importance of algae oil as a source of biodiesel. Energy Conversion and Management, 163-170.

Department for Environment and Water. (2022, February 9). Retrieved from Government of South Australia: https://www.environment.sa.gov.au/topics/land-management/sustainable-soil-land-management/carbon-sequestration

Department of Agriculture Water and the Environment. (2021, October 3). Retrieved from Australian Government: https://www.awe.gov.au/environment/protection/waste/product-stewardship

Designing Buildings. (2022). Retrieved from Designing Buildings: https://www.designingbuildings.co.uk/wiki/Home

Designing Buildings Ltd. (2022, February 9). Retrieved from https://www.designingbuildings.co.uk/wiki/Carbon_terminology

Ellen Macarthur. (2022, February 9). Retrieved from https://ellenmacarthurfoundation.org/topics/circular-economy-introduction/overview

EPD Australasia. (2018). Retrieved from EPD Australasia: https://epd-australasia.com/creating-epds/pcr/

EPD International. (2022). Retrieved from https://www.environdec.com/home

eTool Global. (2022). Retrieved from eTool Global: https://etoolglobal.com/software/help-centre/faqs/

Europa. (2021, June 24). Retrieved from European parliment: https://www.europarl.europa.eu/news/en/headlines/society/20190926STO62270/what-is-carbon-neutrality-and-how-can-it-be-achieved-by-2050

Guida, A. (2020, January 15). Retrieved from The Journal of The American Institute Of Architects: https://www.architectmagazine.com/practice/the-language-of-carbon_o

Hauschild, M. (2018). Life cycle assessment: theory and practice. Switzerland : Springer.

Hauschild, M. Z., Rosenbaum, R. K., & Olsen, S. I. (2017). Life Cycle Assessment. Springer.

IPCC. (2018). Global Warming of 1.5°C. An IPCC Special Report on the impacts of global warming of 1.5°C above pre-industrial levels and related global greenhouse gas emission pathways, in the context of strengthening the global response to the threat of climate change.

ISO 14025. (2006). Environmental labels and declarations — Type III environmental declarations — Principles and procedures. ISO.

ISO 14040. (2006). Environmental management — Life cycle assessment — Principles and framework. ISO.

ISO 14044. (2006). Environmental management — Life cycle assessment — Requirements and guidelines.

Jackson, D. J., & Brander, M. (2019). The risk of burden-shifting from embodied carbon calculation tools for the infrastructure sector. Journal of Cleaner Production, 739-746.

Lexico. (2022). Retrieved from Lexico: https://www.lexico.com/definition/carbon_offset

McAlinden, B. (2015, May 15). Retrieved from Instituition of Civil Engineers: https://www.ice.org.uk/knowledge-and-resources/briefing-sheet/embodied-energy-and-carbon

NSW Government. (2021). Retrieved from NSW Government Energy Saver: https://www.energysaver.nsw.gov.au/reducing-emissions-nsw/low-emission-building-materials

OECD. (2022). Retrieved from OECD: https://www.oecd.org/innovation/green/toolkit/o4greenhousegasintensity.htm

The Alliance for Sustainable Building Products. (2021, May). Retrieved from The Alliance for Sustainable Building Products: https://asbp.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/2021/05/LETI-Carbon-Definitions-for-the-Built-Environment-Buildings-Infrastructure.pdf

The Alliance of Sustainable Building Products. (2021, May 28). Retrieved from The Alliance of Sustainable Building Products,: https://asbp.org.uk/asbp-news/defining-and-aligning-whole-life-carbon-embodied-carbon

The Australian Institute of Landscape Architects (AILA). (2022, February 9). Retrieved from https://www.aila.org.au/Web/Values/Climate-Positive-Design.aspx

The Instituition of Structural Engineers. (2021, June). Retrieved from The Instituition of Structural Engineers: https://drive.google.com/file/d/1X_7Ugm1Ggm5qWlUD9m4LlGTz8HSs3JLz/view?usp=sharing

thinkstep-anz. (2021, August 20). Retrieved from https://www.thinkstep-anz.com/resrc/reports/embodied-carbon-and-embodied-energy-in-australias-buildings-gbca/

U.S. Energy Information Administration. (2020, August 18). Retrieved from https://www.eia.gov/energyexplained/biofuels/biodiesel-in-depth.php

UCL Engineering. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.ucl.ac.uk/engineering-exchange/sites/engineering-exchange/files/fact-sheet-embodied-carbon-social-housing.pdf

UK Government. (2013, April 29). Retrieved from https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/the-carbon-plan-reducing-greenhouse-gas-emissions–2

USGS. (2019, March 8). Retrieved from U.S. Department of the Interior: https://www.usgs.gov/news/featured-story/making-minerals-how-growing-rocks-can-help-reduce-carbon-emissions#:~:text=Carbon%20mineralization%20is%20the%20process,escape%20back%20to%20the%20atmosphere.

VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland Ltd. (2016). Retrieved from https://www.handprint.fi/carbon-handprint/

World Green Building Council. (2019). Bringing embodied carbon upfront. London: WorldGBC.

Comments and suggestions

MECLA, the Materials and Embodied Carbon Leaders’ Alliance, is a collaboration of organisations that have come together to drive reductions in embodied carbon in the building and construction industry. MECLA members seek to align with the Paris Agreement targets and principles of the circular economy and recognise that the building and construction sector is a complex ecosystem. These definitions were developed by volunteers from MECLA Working Group 4 and have been reviewed by volunteers from all other MECLA working groups.

Whilst many hours of care and attention have been gone into the development of this dictionary, it’s possible some terms have been omitted, or you may have a suggestion for an alternative definition. Please help us improve this free industry resource if this is the case.

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